FUSHUN Metals
Q
Classification of steel
A

In addition to iron and carbon, the main elements of steel include silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus.


There are various classification methods for steel, and the main methods are as follows:


1. Classified by quality


(1) Ordinary steel (P ≤ 0.045%, S ≤ 0.050%)


(2) high quality steel (P, S are ≤ 0.035%)


(3) High-quality steel (P≤0.035%, S≤0.030%)


2, classified by chemical composition


(1) Carbon steel: a. low carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25%); b. medium carbon steel (C ≤ 0.25 ~ 0.60%); c. high carbon steel (C ≤ 0.60%).


(2) alloy steel: a. low alloy steel (total content of alloying elements ≤ 5%); b. medium alloy steel (total content of alloying elements > 5 to 10%); c. high alloy steel (total content of alloying elements > 10 %).


3. Classified according to the forming method:


(1) forged steel; (2) cast steel; (3) hot rolled steel; (4) cold drawn steel.


4. Classification by metallographic organization


(1) Annealed state: a. hypoeutectoid steel (ferrite + pearlite); b. eutectoid steel (pearlite); c. hypereutectoid steel (pearlite + cementite); d. Crust steel (pearlite + cementite).


(2) Normalized state: a. pearlitic steel; b. bainitic steel; c. martensitic steel; d. austenitic steel.


(3) No phase change or partial phase change


5, by purpose


(1) Steel for construction and engineering: a. ordinary carbon structural steel; b. low alloy structural steel; c.


(2) Structural steel:


a. Mechanical manufacturing steel: (a) quenched and tempered structural steel; (b) surface hardened structural steel: including carburized steel, ammoniated steel, surface quenching steel; (c) easy-cut structural steel; (d) cold plasticity Steel for forming: steel for cold stamping and steel for cold heading.

b. spring steel

c. bearing steel


(3) Tool steel: a. carbon tool steel; b. alloy tool steel; c. high speed tool steel.


(4) Special performance steel: a. stainless acid-resistant steel; b. heat-resistant steel: including anti-oxidation steel, heat-strength steel, gas valve steel; c. electro-thermal alloy steel; d. wear-resistant steel; e. low-temperature steel ;f. Electrical steel.


(5) Professional steels – such as steel for bridges, steel for ships, steel for boilers, steel for pressure vessels, steel for agricultural machinery, etc.


6, comprehensive classification


(1) ordinary steel


a. Carbon structural steel: (a) Q195; (b) Q215 (A, B); (c) Q235 (A, B, C); (d) Q255 (A, B); (e) Q275.

b. Low alloy structural steel

c. Ordinary structural steel for specific purposes


(2) high quality steel (including high quality steel)


a. Structural steel: (a) high quality carbon structural steel; (b) alloy structural steel; (c) spring steel; (d) easy-cut steel; (e) bearing steel; (f) high-quality structural steel for specific purposes.

b. Tool steel: (a) carbon tool steel; (b) alloy tool steel; (c) high speed tool steel.

c. Special properties steel: (a) stainless acid resistant steel; (b) heat resistant steel; (c) electrothermal alloy steel; (d) electrical steel; (e) high manganese wear resistant steel.


7, classified according to smelting methods


(1) According to furnace type


a. Converter steel: (a) acid converter steel; (b) alkaline converter steel. Or (a) bottom-blown converter steel; (b) side-blown converter steel; (c) top-blown converter steel.

b. Electric furnace steel: (a) electric arc furnace steel; (b) electroslag furnace steel; (c) induction furnace steel; (d) vacuum consumable furnace steel; (e) electron beam furnace steel.


(2) According to the degree of deoxidation and the pouring system


a. boiling steel; b. semi-killed steel; c. killed steel; d. special killed steel

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