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Understanding the Differences in Spring Wire Materials

Understanding the Differences in Spring Wire MaterialsChoosing the right spring wire materials when developing a torsion, extension or compression spring will make all the difference between enjoying a cost-effective, successful project or an expensive, failed project. In addition, certain factors directly impact your choice of optimum material for spring projects, such as tensile strength, corrosion resistance, elastic deformation, electric conductivity and operating temperature/environment. Before selecting the right type of spring wire material, consider the environment impacting operation of the spring, the amount of deflection, frequency of cycles and the ratio of wire form or spring expense relative to the cost of the overall project. Custom spring manufacturers offer springs and custom wire forms composed of the one of several wire materials: Hard Drawn MBHigh carbon spring steels (cold drawn) are commonly utilized spring materials. Easily worked and inexpensive, Hard Drawn MB material is not meant for low or high temperatures, impact loading or shock. When deflection, accuracy or life is not too important, Hard Drawn MB is a good choice for a spring wire material. Stainless SteelA cold drawn, general purpose spring wire material, stainless steel is heat/corrosion resistant and magnetic in spring temper. Alloy steels with 10 percent or more chromium provide better corrosion resistance than alloy or plain steels. Springs commonly use precipitation and austenitic hardening. Music WireMusic wire (cold drawn) is a high carbon spring steel that has uniform, high tensile and the ability to withstand high stress under repetitive loading. Considered the toughest of spring materials, music wire also offers an excellent surface finish. High temperature spring wires are often found in foundries, heat treating, refractories and other processing operations exhibiting extremely hot internal temperatures. Brass Spring WireBrass is slightly more expensive than other spring wire materials but offers good water and corrosion resistance. Due to their sturdy flexibility, brass springs can store large amounts of mechanical and potential energy. Most brass spring wire material is a zinc and copper alloy consistently of around 50 percent copper. Phosphor BronzeIdeal for customized springs and wire form springs requiring medium electrical conductivity and dependable physical properties, Phosphor Bronze is a more cost-effective alternative to copper (Beryllium). This material is cold worked to achieve the desired temper. Oil TemperedDelivering durability, strength and malleability, oil-tempered spring material is great for springs requiring large wire diameters and the capability to support heavy-duty equipment. Oil-tempered material is also a good choice for torsion springs. Copper-Based AlloysBeryllium copper is one of the strongest copper-based alloys offering good corrosion resistance and electrical properties for many low temperature, marine and electrical spring applications. Custom spring manufacturers also design Beryllium copper springs for mold making, robotic welding, landing gears and oilfield tools applications.

Petrochemical industry stainless steel pipe application demand and development trend

Petrochemical industry stainless steel pipe application demand and development trend The first stage of the development of the petrochemical industry is the founding of New China to the reform and opening up, the basic formation of China's petroleum and chemical industries of the basic system. The second stage is the reform and opening up to the end of the last century or the beginning of this century, China's petrochemical industry developed into a supporting industrial system. The third stage is the 20 years since the new century, opening a new journey of high-quality development of the petrochemical industry. 2019 China's petrochemical industry accounts for about 40% of the world total, and China's contribution will be further increased to 50% in 2030. The petroleum and chemical industry is generally divided into industrial chains based on raw materials, which are usually referred to as coal chemical, salt chemical, petrochemical, biochemical, and phosphorus chemical. The petrochemical industry chain is usually the production of oil products, basic organic chemicals, fine chemicals, synthetic materials with oil and natural gas as raw materials. Petrochemical industry demand for the use of stainless steel can be roughly divided into four areas, which are corrosion resistance, low temperature resistance, high temperature resistance, high strength. General corrosive environment and clean requirements of the environment commonly used for 304, 316 materials; pitting and crevice corrosion environment commonly used 2205, 2507 materials; low temperature environment commonly used materials 304, 304L; high temperature environment commonly used materials 304H; alkali stress corrosion environment commonly used 316 materials; carbon dioxide corrosion environment commonly used 304L, 316L materials; high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide environment commonly used 321H, 347H materials are mainly. In addition, respectively, the LNG plant, ethylene plant, PDH plant, coal gasification plant and oil refinery stainless steel material application environment was briefly sorted out. Finally from the petrochemical stainless steel pipe demand situation, compared to the poor corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel and ferrite stainless steel brittle too large lack of electricity, austenitic stainless steel has better corrosion resistance, welding properties, low temperature performance, and non-magnetic, and thus become the most widely used stainless steel for petrochemical. Due to the composition control, heat treatment and welding restrictions, ferritic stainless steel pipe is currently used less in the petrochemical industry, but with the application of smelting and heat treatment equipment technology will gradually increase. With the gradual implementation of the carbon peak requirements, the amount of stainless steel in the coal chemical industry will still show an increasing trend, especially the subsequent environmental protection devices, the amount of duplex steel in the sewage treatment unit is also larger. Low-alloy stainless steel such as 2102, can be used for some clean requirements of low corrosion conditions, some design institutes have begun to design, for some of the heavier corrosion environment, such as oil and gas fields, marine environment, etc., the success of the development of 2707HD will also partially replace nickel-based alloys. The amount of high alloy for poor quality crude oil, flue gas desulfurization, high chlorine crude oil oxygen pipeline network is still on the trend of increasing. Give attention to the electrolytic chlorine production, liquid hydrogen preparation and storage and transportation, hydrogenation and other industries, the overall amount of stainless steel is not much, but the device will blow up in the future, and the material requirements are high, will certainly occupy the center of the upstream energy pattern. Stainless steel pipe in the petrochemical and other process industries is a very wide range of application prospects. But at the same time, the majority of stainless steel products production and processing, application areas put forward numerous new and more in-depth requirements. So this is also the main task of China's stainless steel industry in the new phase. The stainless steel industry should be shifted from solving the problem of availability to user-oriented production refinement, deep processing, variety research and development and manufacturing production process as well as application research in parallel with the new stage. In addition, should also pay attention to the material circulation link to communicate the role of the bridge between production and application. In this regard, the current steel production enterprises and users directly occur in the order of supply and marketing model should be studied in depth, in order to adapt to the future user more segmented, small quantities, varieties, special requirements of the new market requirements.

Petrochemical industry stainless steel pipe application demand and development trend

Petrochemical industry stainless steel pipe application demand and development trend The first stage of the development of the petrochemical industry is the founding of New China to the reform and opening up, the basic formation of China's petroleum and chemical industries of the basic system. The second stage is the reform and opening up to the end of the last century or the beginning of this century, China's petrochemical industry developed into a supporting industrial system. The third stage is the 20 years since the new century, opening a new journey of high-quality development of the petrochemical industry. 2019 China's petrochemical industry accounts for about 40% of the world total, and China's contribution will be further increased to 50% in 2030. The petroleum and chemical industry is generally divided into industrial chains based on raw materials, which are usually referred to as coal chemical, salt chemical, petrochemical, biochemical, and phosphorus chemical. The petrochemical industry chain is usually the production of oil products, basic organic chemicals, fine chemicals, synthetic materials with oil and natural gas as raw materials. Petrochemical industry demand for the use of stainless steel can be roughly divided into four areas, which are corrosion resistance, low temperature resistance, high temperature resistance, high strength. General corrosive environment and clean requirements of the environment commonly used for 304, 316 materials; pitting and crevice corrosion environment commonly used 2205, 2507 materials; low temperature environment commonly used materials 304, 304L; high temperature environment commonly used materials 304H; alkali stress corrosion environment commonly used 316 materials; carbon dioxide corrosion environment commonly used 304L, 316L materials; high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide environment commonly used 321H, 347H materials are mainly. In addition, respectively, the LNG plant, ethylene plant, PDH plant, coal gasification plant and oil refinery stainless steel material application environment was briefly sorted out. Finally from the petrochemical stainless steel pipe demand situation, compared to the poor corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steel and ferrite stainless steel brittle too large lack of electricity, austenitic stainless steel has better corrosion resistance, welding properties, low temperature performance, and non-magnetic, and thus become the most widely used stainless steel for petrochemical. Due to the composition control, heat treatment and welding restrictions, ferritic stainless steel pipe is currently used less in the petrochemical industry, but with the application of smelting and heat treatment equipment technology will gradually increase. With the gradual implementation of the carbon peak requirements, the amount of stainless steel in the coal chemical industry will still show an increasing trend, especially the subsequent environmental protection devices, the amount of duplex steel in the sewage treatment unit is also larger. Low-alloy stainless steel such as 2102, can be used for some clean requirements of low corrosion conditions, some design institutes have begun to design, for some of the heavier corrosion environment, such as oil and gas fields, marine environment, etc., the success of the development of 2707HD will also partially replace nickel-based alloys. The amount of high alloy for poor quality crude oil, flue gas desulfurization, high chlorine crude oil oxygen pipeline network is still on the trend of increasing. Give attention to the electrolytic chlorine production, liquid hydrogen preparation and storage and transportation, hydrogenation and other industries, the overall amount of stainless steel is not much, but the device will blow up in the future, and the material requirements are high, will certainly occupy the center of the upstream energy pattern. Stainless steel pipe in the petrochemical and other process industries is a very wide range of application prospects. But at the same time, the majority of stainless steel products production and processing, application areas put forward numerous new and more in-depth requirements. So this is also the main task of China's stainless steel industry in the new phase. The stainless steel industry should be shifted from solving the problem of availability to user-oriented production refinement, deep processing, variety research and development and manufacturing production process as well as application research in parallel with the new stage. In addition, should also pay attention to the material circulation link to communicate the role of the bridge between production and application. In this regard, the current steel production enterprises and users directly occur in the order of supply and marketing model should be studied in depth, in order to adapt to the future user more segmented, small quantities, varieties, special requirements of the new market requirements.

Stainless steel tube in the power station boiler industry application research and prospects

Stainless steel tube in the power station boiler industry application research and prospects 1.Super304H     Super304 is based on ASME SA213 TP304, by adding Cu, N, N b, B and other elements to improve the lasting strength, good process performance and design of a new steel grade. Ltd. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Group, is an essential material for the heating surface of high parameter supercritical boilers in service. The Japanese METI standard, named SUS304HJ1TB, was confirmed by ASME Code case 2328 in March 2000, and was included in ASTM A213M in 2001 with the grade S30432 and the DMV equivalent grade DMV304HCu.      Through the Sumitomo purchase of Super304H steel pipe by batch intergranular corrosion test, the statistical results show that: intergranular corrosion test pass rate is less than 50%. Appropriate increase in solid solution treatment temperature can improve the intergranular corrosion pass rate, but it will lead to large grain size, harming the resistance to steam oxidation performance. Intergranular corrosion can be avoided by strengthening storage and avoiding contact with corrosive media. 2.HR3C    The composition of HR3C is based on ASME SA213 TP310H, a new steel grade designed to improve the lasting strength by adding the right amount of Nb and N. Developed by Sumitomo Metals, Inc. and designated as "Fire SUS310J1TB" in the Japanese METI specification, HR3C was confirmed by ASME code case 2115 and incorporated into the ASME SA213M specification as TP310HCbN, with the American grade S31 042. DMV grade DMV310N. 3.Sanicro25    Sanicro25 is a new austenitic steel developed by Swedish Sandvik, the main component is 22Cr- 25Ni-3.5W-3Cu. High temperature strength is higher than HR3C, and after aging brittleness is significantly better than HR3C. high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion performance. Organizational stability, processing performance is good. Super304H stainless steel tube (shot peening) in ultra-supercritical power station boiler has a wide range of application prospects. sanicro25 (S31035) stainless steel tube in 650 C high parameter power station boiler will be used in large quantities. Large-diameter stainless steel tubes are not recommended for use in high-parameter power station boilers on the collector box and piping components

Large diameter seamless tube structure and its chemical activity analysis

Large diameter seamless tube structure and its chemical activity analysis The corrosion caused by the electrochemical action of large diameter seamless pipe in contact with the surrounding electrolyte is called electrochemical corrosion. The so-called electrochemical action is the role of generating electric current in the process of chemical reaction. This kind of corrosion due to electric current is electrochemical corrosion. It is more common than chemical corrosion. Generally speaking, the principle of electrochemical corrosion of large diameter seamless pipe is the same as that of primary cell of large diameter seamless pipe. Therefore, to understand electrochemical corrosion, you must first learn the theory of primary battery and related knowledge. First, the structure and chemical activity of large-diameter seamless tubeFrom the modern atomic structure theory, due to the large diameter of the seamless tube, the number of outermost electrons in an atom is small (1,2,3e e e), and with the increase of the atomic radius, the outermost electrons are easily lost. When electrons leave a large diameter seamless tube atom, the large diameter seamless tube atom becomes a large diameter seamless tube cation, and when electrons leave a large diameter seamless tube cation, it now becomes a neutral large diameter seamless tube atom.The structure of large-diameter seamless tubes was studied with x-rays, and the results proved that all large-diameter seamless tubes have a crystalline structure, with large-diameter seamless tubes and large-diameter seamless tubes cation atoms lining the large-diameter seamless tube lattice points. Between the atomic electrons of the ions present between the original to and away, these electrons are not fixed on the dotted nodes near the large-diameter seamless tube, but move freely throughout the interworking of the character, and are therefore called free electrons. Due to the free movement of electrons large-diameter seamless tubes are created, and with the help of large-diameter steel tube bonds, atoms and cations are tightly connected together in large-diameter seamless tubes, forming large-diameter seamless tubes crystals. Due to the above structural characteristics, especially the presence and movement of free electrons, large diameter seamless steel tubes have some common properties. Such as conduction, heat transfer, ductility, etc. In terms of chemical properties, large-diameter seamless tube atoms easily lose valence electrons and turn into cations. Therefore, large diameter seamless tube is a water-reducing agent. The easier large seamless tubes lose electrons, the more chemically active they are. For example, if we put a small piece of zinc into any lead salt solution, we can see that the zinc starts to dissolve and the lead dissolves from the solution. For example: Zri + Pb (N03) 2 = Pb + Zinc (N03) 2Write it as an ionic equation:Zn+ Pb++ = Pb+ Zn++ Clearly, this is a typical redox reaction. The essence of the reaction is that the zinc atom gives its outermost electron to the Pb++ ion, and the Pb++ ion becomes the Zn++ ion into solution. On the other hand, the Pb++ + ions combine with the electrons to form large seamless lead tubes that precipitate out of the solution. If you do the opposite experiment and you put a small piece of lead into the zinc salt solution, nothing happens. This means that zinc loses electrons more readily than lead, and zinc ions are less likely to bind electrons than lead. So zinc is more active than lead. If the same method is used to compare the activity of lead and copper, it is found that lead is more active than copper and brass, where lead replaces the salt solution of steel, while copper is not displaced by the salt solution of lead. It can be seen that among the above three types of large-diameter seamless tubes - zinc, lead and copper - zinc is the most active and loses the most electrons, lead is the second and copper the least. According to the above experiments, it can be seen that the size of the mutual substitution ability of large-diameter seamless tubes in solution is, and the size of the activity of large-diameter seamless tubes can be determined. Large-diameter seamless tube activation order tableK, Na, Ca, Mg, Ba, Al, Mn, zn, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sn, Pb, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Pt, Au The ability of large diameter seamless tube to lose electrons in solution (the activity and reduction ability of large diameter seamless tube) is weakenedFrom this number list, we can summarize the chemical properties of large-diameter seamless tubes as follows:1. large diameter seamless tubes (containing hydrogen) in the large diameter seamless tubes activation sequence list from their salt solutions can replace the large diameter seamless tubes that follow them2. large-diameter thick-walled tubes in front of hydrogen can replace hydrogen in dilute acids, while large-diameter seamless tubes behind hydrogen cannot3. The more active the large-diameter seamless tube in front of it in the ordinal list, the greater the possibility of its atoms losing electrons and the greater the difficulty of ion binding

Sanicro35 made for harsh wet corrosive conditions

Sanicro35, made for harsh wet corrosive conditions Sanicro35 is a new grade introduced by Sandvik in recent years to bridge the performance gap between stainless steels and nickel-based alloys for use in extremely harsh corrosive environments. The main objectives of introducing Sanicro 35 are: (1) Sanicro® 35 aims to fill the gap between standard duplex or austenitic stainless steels with poor performance and less cost effective nickel-based alloys. (2) Sanicro® 35 is optimized for high structural stability, improved weldability and overall producibility. (3) Sanicro® 35 offers excellent corrosion resistance in harsh, high chloride applications (e.g. seawater) and other highly corrosive environments.The composition of Sanicro 35 is designed with increased nitrogen content for strength, Cr, Mo, and N combined to improve the material's resistance to point corrosion, and Ni to improve resistance to acid corrosion and structural stability.PREN values up to 52 or more. Has a good mechanical properties index, yield strength can reach 425MPa, between alloy 625 and duplex stainless steel 2205. The maximum allowable pressure exceeds 654SMO and other materials, and the maximum allowable temperature is 430°C. It has excellent resistance to pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and seawater corrosion, as well as good resistance to hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and organic acid corrosion, excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance, and the material has excellent welding performance. Currently Sanicro35 passed the UNSN08935 standard, in line with NACEMR0175/ISO15156-3:20154a and 4c type materials. Conforms to ANSI/NACEMR0103/ISO17495-1: 2016 High alloy austenitic stainless steel and nickel based alloys. Seamless tubes conform to ASTM B163. certified to ASME Code Case 2982. the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sections VIII, I and II and Special Materials Assessment (PMA) pre-approval, TÜV file 1326W043219.      Sanicro has excellent material properties and can be used as an alternative upgrade to current super austenitic stainless steels for a wider temperature range than duplex and super duplex stainless steels, with performance comparable to more expensive nickel-based alloys. sanicro 35 has the same production process as stainless steels and is suitable for a wide range of service and applications. Sanicro® 35 is a new member of Sandvik's Sanicro® family of nickel-based alloys and austenitic stainless steels, offering higher strength and corrosion resistance over a wider temperature range. Designed for extreme corrosive environments and seawater applications, Sanicro® 35 is ideal for heat exchanger tubes and hydraulic instrumentation tubes. The new alloy offers high strength, good corrosion resistance, structural stability and ease of processing. In the hydraulic instrumentation tubing segment, this new material bridges the gap between stainless steel and expensive nickel-based alloys, helping to streamline inventories, reduce catalogs and provide a safe alternative to existing materials. In the high-performance heat exchanger (HX) segment, Sanicro® 35 achieves higher operating temperatures and is more cost effective than nickel-based alloys. These benefits support lower life cycle costs, eliminate unplanned downtime, resist uniform corrosion and pitting and avoid crevice corrosion. Its versatile material properties mean it can reduce risk and provide customers with a smart and cost-effective option for dealing with corrosion. By bridging the gap between stainless steel and nickel-based alloys, Sanicro® 35 offers an excellent price/performance ratio and the ability to balance heat exchanger performance fluctuations. Instead of choosing a conservative material, Sanicro® 35 gives you the confidence and performance you need to meet your job requirements. In cost-conscious environments, Sanicro® 35 is more than considered a comprehensive tubing solution for many hydraulic instrumentation and heat exchanger challenges. After eight years of testing and full production using recycled steel and a 75-ton melt made with sustainable "green energy," Sandvik has finally introduced an alloy that bridges the performance gap between standard duplex/austenitic materials and expensive nickel-based alloys.Sanicro® 35 is a new super austenitic material with 6.5 Mo properties and high performance strength and corrosion resistance at temperatures in excess of 250ºC.From hydraulic instrumentation tubes to heat exchanger tubes, Sanicro® 35 offers a new high performance alternative to existing grades and a peace of mind for field operators looking for a cost effective material.

High Speed Steel History

High Speed Steel History High speed steel grades have been developed over the years primarily for high speed cutting applications, but also for use in the production of tools and dies. The properties of each grade vary, but common properties include high wear resistance and excellent toughness. High speed steel grades also have high heat resistance up to 500°C, which makes them perfect for high speed use, hence the name. Through heat treatment, these steels can achieve high Rockwell hardness, for example, M2 HSS is typically hardened to 64 HRC, while M42 can be hardened to as high as 70 HRC, although it is typically hardened to 66-68 HRC. The chemical composition of HSS grades combines some or all of the alloying elements of carbon, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten and cobalt. Grades combining carbon, vanadium and tungsten can provide the highest wear resistance. Cobalt grades provide improved thermal hardness and washability, but reduced toughness. In 1868, Robert Meashet invented a self-hardening/air-hardening steel called wheat steel or R-ear bean special steel. This was the first known special steel that gained a degree of hardness when forged and cooled. It was widely used for engineering tools and was patented at the time, its chemical composition remaining secret. We now know that the 8% tungsten content is the key to the steel's properties. In 1870, Samuel Osborn & Company of Selfrid, Selfrid, England, purchased the mass production of steel. In the nineteenth century in the United States, Frederick Taylor and British, Maunsel White, who worked for Bethlehem Steel in Pennsylvania, did many tests and experiments on wheat steel to learn more about its characteristics. During these experiments, they found that adding 3.8 percent chromium to 8 percent tungsten steel allowed it to be quenched and tempered at high temperatures (near the steel's melting point)). In the service used, it could work at a faster rate than Meashet steel. The name given is High Speed Steel. T1 was one of the first mass-produced high-speed steels. It was developed and manufactured in 1910 and patented by the Crucible Steel Company in New Jersey, USA. In 1937 W Breelor, USA, invented the tungsten-molybdenum high-speed steel M2. In the following years, many new grades of HSS were developed. In the UK, numerous specialised steel producers (mainly in Sheffield) made numerous HSS, as well as tool steel grades. It is common for a universal presence to exist for each manufacturer to offer each grade a unique company steel brand. For example, Samuel Osborn & Company is a good example of a company that prides itself on using the Mushet name in its HSS grades; Samuel Osborn brand AISI BS4659*Dual Particle ND T1 BT1triple wheat floor GZ T4 BT4mushet MKK M2 BM2Meashet Special VG M15 BM15* (introduced in 1971) General HSS SpecificationsThe many brand names given to tools and HSS are confusing to buyers. In 1971, the British Standards Institution utilized a new standard for all major types of tool and HSS steels used in the UK, called BS4659. overtime to accelerate the production of a reduced range of HSS. The most popular grades are now M2, M35 and M42, available in round bar, flat bar and plate. M2 HSSWith its tungsten-molybdenum combination M2 HSS provides high wear resistance after hardening. With better toughness and good cutting power, it has now been replaced as the most popular grade of HSS. Today T1 is rarely produced or stocked in the UK. M35 HSSThe addition of cobalt to M35 gives it better heat resistance properties than M2. M42 HSSHas high hardness (up to 70Hrc) and excellent hot hardness tooling made from M42 tools, providing excellent serviceability. ApplicationsHSS specifications are commonly used for tool bits, cutting tools, taps, drills, cutters and strip blades. Utilizing their high hardness and high wear resistance HSS are commonly used in tooling applications such as punches and components of dies.

What is Alloy Steel?

What is Alloy Steel? An alloy steel is a type of steel alloyed with more than one element (alloying elements) and these are added to increase strength, hardness, wear resistance and toughness. The added alloying elements that are added to the base iron and carbon structure typically total no more than 5% of the alloy steel’s material composition. Alloy Steel AdvantagesWhether your project requires advanced corrosion resistance, machinability, strength, or another quality, there is an alloy steel that provides the features you need. With added heat treatment alloy steels can provide a wide range of beneficial qualities including:Enhanced corrosion resistanceIncreased hardenabilitySuperior strength and hardness High & Low Alloy Steel Differentiating QualitiesA high alloy steel has alloying elements (not including carbon or iron) that make up more than 8% of its composition. These alloys are less common, because most steel only dedicates a few percent to the additional elements. Stainless steel is the most popular high alloy, with at least 10.5% chromium by mass. This ratio gives stainless steel more corrosion resistance, with a coating of chromium oxide to slow down rusting.Meanwhile, low alloy steel is only modified slightly with other elements, which provide subtle advantages in hardenability, strength, and free-machining. By lowering the carbon content to around 0.2%, the low alloy steel will retain its strength and boast improved formability. Common Steel Alloying ElementsWhen it comes to steel, there are many different elements that can be added to the base material, allowing the purchaser to tweak variances until the right alloy is found. Common alloying elements include the following:l Manganese: Used in tandem with small amounts of sulfur and phosphorus, the steel alloy becomes less brittle and easier to hammer.l Chromium: A small percentage (0.5% - 2%) can help to harden the alloy; larger percentages (4% - 18%) have the added effect of preventing corrosion.l Vanadium: With only .15%, this element can boost strength, heat resistance, and overall grain structure. Mixed together with chromium, the steel alloy becomes much harder, but still retains its formability.l Nickel: Up to 5%, this alloying element will improve the steel’s strength. In excess of 12%, it provides impressive corrosion resistance.l Tungsten: Boosts heat resistance, so the melting point is higher. Also improves the structural makeup of the steel. Alloy Steel Shape & Material OptionsWhether you are searching for a steel or stainless steel alloy, there are several material and shape options worth considering.Steel Alloy ShapesBarPipeTubeSheet & PlateStructural ShapesPre-CutsStainless Steel Alloy ShapesBarTubePipeAngleWireSheet & Plate Fushun Metal LTD COFushun Metal is a large special steel manufacturer and supplier. We are metal experts and have been providing quality customer service and products since 1998. At Fushun Metal, we supply a wide range of metals for a variety of applications. Our products/stock includes: cold rolled steel tube, cold drawn steel tube, hollow bar, boiler tube, alloy steel tube, stainless steel tube, nickel alloy pipe,etc  We also can supply move services like heat-treatment(QT, +A, +N, +SR, +BKS), grounded, polished, cutting, beveled, painted, threaded, upsetting, boring, honing etc. Send your inquiry information to us and get a free quotation today!  

WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL MADE OF

WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL MADE OF?Stainless steel refers to any type of steel that contains more than 10.5% of chromium content. It can also be identified by its passive layer, which is where the oxygen chromium has formed a sealed, fixed-adhering chromic oxide layer.Stainless steel differs to aluminium, and has several benefits, which is what makes it such a popular choice in applications across a range of industries:High strength: It retains its strength in a range of high and low temperatures.Aesthetically pleasing: Despite being extremely functional, stainless steel also looks classic, yet contemporary.Resistant to corrosion: It’s resistant to both water stains and rust, in a variety of pressures and temperatures.Easy to clean: As it’s so easy to sterilise, it doesn’t support the growth of bacteria, making it one of the most hygienic materials around.Recyclable: Up to 90% of stainless steel is made from recycled steel, and its qualities don’t deteriorate during the recycling process.What is the most common stainless steel?There are numerous variations of stainless steel, with each formulation boasting its own unique properties in terms of corrosion resistance, tensile strength, oxidation resistance, and melting point.Despite this wide range, they can all be categorised into these three broad types:Austenitic: Compared to other steel alloys, these have a higher chromium content, which makes them extra resistant to corrosion. They're also not magnetic – although this can change after cold working.Ferritic: Unlike austenitic stainless steel, ferritic ones are magnetic, and can be hardened through cold working. Because they have reduced nickel content, they also tend to be cheaper.Martensitic: This is the least common category, and despite their high hardness, they tend to have lower levels of resistance to corrosion. For this reason, they are often used for applications that require high impact resistance and tensile strength.

WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL MADE OF

WHAT IS STAINLESS STEEL MADE OF?Stainless steel refers to any type of steel that contains more than 10.5% of chromium content. It can also be identified by its passive layer, which is where the oxygen chromium has formed a sealed, fixed-adhering chromic oxide layer.Stainless steel differs to aluminium, and has several benefits, which is what makes it such a popular choice in applications across a range of industries:High strength: It retains its strength in a range of high and low temperatures.Aesthetically pleasing: Despite being extremely functional, stainless steel also looks classic, yet contemporary.Resistant to corrosion: It’s resistant to both water stains and rust, in a variety of pressures and temperatures.Easy to clean: As it’s so easy to sterilise, it doesn’t support the growth of bacteria, making it one of the most hygienic materials around.Recyclable: Up to 90% of stainless steel is made from recycled steel, and its qualities don’t deteriorate during the recycling process.What is the most common stainless steel?There are numerous variations of stainless steel, with each formulation boasting its own unique properties in terms of corrosion resistance, tensile strength, oxidation resistance, and melting point.Despite this wide range, they can all be categorised into these three broad types:Austenitic: Compared to other steel alloys, these have a higher chromium content, which makes them extra resistant to corrosion. They’re also not magnetic – although this can change after cold working.Ferritic: Unlike austenitic stainless steel, ferritic ones are magnetic, and can be hardened through cold working. Because they have reduced nickel content, they also tend to be cheaper.Martensitic: This is the least common category, and despite their high hardness, they tend to have lower levels of resistance to corrosion. For this reason, they are often used for applications that require high impact resistance and tensile strength.

What Are Brinell and Rockwell Hardness Measurements?

What Are Brinell and Rockwell Hardness Measurements? What is steel Hardness?The capacity of a steel or steel alloy to resist plastic deformation in a specific, localized region rather than a general location is described as hardness. It’s also the resistance of a steel to indentation, scratching, or abrasion.Hardness is an essential characteristic since a steel’s capacity to resist wear is directly proportional to its hardness. Within a particular kind of steel, hardness levels might vary based on alloying elements, heat treatment, work hardening, and other hardening processes utilized.Because of the diversity in hardness among steels and even within a family of steels, methods for measuring hardness such as Brinell hardness and Rockwell hardness were developed to provide a common understanding of hardness levels. What is Brinell hardness?Brinell hardness is a scale that assigns a numerical value to a material’s level of hardness. ASTM E10 specifies the procedure for performing a Brinell hardness test in detail. A certified Brinell indenter is pushed against a steel under a specified load for a predetermined length of time to conduct the test. All of this is described in order to limit the possibility of experiment technique variation impacting findings. For steels and other comparable materials, the indenter is typically a 10mm hardened steel ball with a force of 3,000 kg.The test varies somewhat depending on whether the material is softer or tougher. After applying stress to the steel, the indenter is withdrawn and the breadth of the resulting indentation is measured with a microscope. A Brinell hardness scale may then be used to translate the indentation measurement into a Brinell hardness value. What is Rockwell Hardness?Rockwell’s hardness is similar to Brinell hardness it is used to determine the numerical hardness of a material. A Rockwell hardness test and a Rockwell hardness scale are used to accomplishing this. ASTM E18 specifies the specific procedure. Rockwell hardness tests, like Brinell hardness tests, use an indenter of a given size applied with a predetermined force for a certain period of time. Using a Rockwell hardness scale, the indentation measurement is converted to a Rockwell hardness value. What is the Difference between Rockwell and Brinell Tests?While the two tests have similarities, there are several important differences, listed below:Depending on the material being evaluated, the Brinell test utilizes a 10mm hardened steel ball, whereas the Rockwell test uses either a 4mm steel ball or a diamond cone.The Rockwell test determines the depth of the indentation, whereas the Brinell test determines its width. A preload is used in Rockwell hardness testing to create a zero position before the main load is applied. The primary load is then removed, leaving just the preload. The Rockwell testing equipment then measures the distance traveled.It’s also worth noting that the conversion scales for Rockwell and Brinell hardness are not the same and should not be used interchangeably. Where are Brinell and Rockwell Hardness Tests Used?Almost every industry uses the Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests. They’re important for determining whether steels and other materials will withstand indentation, abrasion, scratching, and other kinds of wear in a specific application. Materials for engine pistons, jet turbine blades, ship hulls, bronze fixturing equipment, railcar wheels, and many other components that may be exposed to wear conditions are just a few examples.

What is HSLA Steel?

What is HSLA Steel? HSLA means High strength low alloy steel. HSLA has a limited proportion of alloy incorporated in the chemical properties. These alloy components are required to improve the intensity of the material. HSLA steel can be made to have higher hardness and be more resistant to heat treatment than carbon steel, in addition to providing improved strength over carbon steel. Alloying components may also be used to improve steel corrosion resistance. How high strength low alloy is steel made?HSLA steel is formed in the same technique, as different types of materials made. Iron ore and coal are mixed together in a fire, which heats the minerals and burns out some of the impurities. Based on the grade of HSLA steel, different quantities and forms of alloys are then applied to the molten mixture. If the correct chemical composition has obtained, many other measures ensure that pollutants in the HSLA steel are kept to a minimum. After that, the steel is enabled to consolidate into a wide rectangle alloy. After that, the HSLA steel ingot is made it down to its appropriate size. What Is the Process of high-strength low alloy Steel?HSLA steel has a number of benefits over normal carbon steel. Since the atoms of the elements tend to block the deformation of motion in the microstructure of carbon steel, the presence of alloying components improves strength and hardness. Carbon steel’s strength and hardness can be increased by alloying components such as tungsten, vanadium, silicon, copper, molybdenum, and manganese. Nickel is particularly useful for increasing hardness.Corrosion tolerance in HSLA steels can also be improved. Components of Alloys such as copper, nickel, and chromium can improve steel’s corrosion resistance. This is possible because the copper, nickel, and chromium in HSLA steel oxidize faster with the iron. It prevents iron oxide, or rust, from settling mostly on iron. Common High Strength Low Alloy or HSLA Steel GradesBecause of the many alloying material variations that can be used, High Strength Low Alloy steel is available in a wide range of grades. The chemical composition and grade of High Strength Low Alloy steel should be determined by the expected use.ASTM A36 steel is a common form of HSLA steel. ASTM A36 is an HSLA steel that can be used for a variety of purposes. It is widely used in the construction of steel structures. It is inexpensive, weldable, and machinable. This adaptability, along with its outstanding mechanical properties is what makes it such a popular choice for structural uses.Weathering steel is a form of HSLA steel as well. It is widely used in structural applications that do not need a coating or coats of paint, such as bridge construction. ASTM A242 and ASTM A588 are two standard weathering steel classes.HSLA steel is used for more than just structural purposes. It is most commonly found in oil and gas delivery pipelines. Among the most popular materials being used in modern piping is API 5L Grade X70. The number “70” in the name refers to the 70,000 psi minimum yield strength needed by the American Petroleum Institute. ASTM A573 is another standard used in the oil and gas industry. ASTM A573 is a standard that is commonly used in the manufacturing of storage tanks.Of course, there are a variety of other HSLA steel grades available. Such grades are designed to be weldable rather than machinable, and others are designed to be abrasion-resistant or precipitation resistant.

How does heat-treatment the steel affects properties?

How does heat-treatment the steel affects properties? Heat can affect the electrical, magnetic, and structural properties of steels. Since steel has a wide range of uses, various conditions emphasize different attributes. Toughness is required in industrial applications, whereas low electrical density is significant in electronic applications.There are many methods of heating steel that are widely used to change these properties. To obtain the desired result, the temperature at which the steel is heated and the rate at which it cools is closely regulated. The following are the most critical ways that steels are converted by heat:MagnetismElectrical ResistanceThermal ExpansionMagnetismIron, nickel, and cobalt are the three steels that have magnetic properties. It is referred to as ferromagnetic steel. Heating these steels reduces their magnetism to the point that magnetism is no longer there. The Curie temperature is the temperature at which this happens. This temperature is 626 ° Fahrenheit for nickel, 2,012 degrees Fahrenheit for cobalt, and 1,418 ° Fahrenheit for iron. Electrical ResistanceThe electrical resistance of a steel is an indicator of how deeply it obstructs the flow of electrical current. Electrons scatter when they collide with the steellic structure as they flow through the steel. Electrons consume more energy and travel faster while the steel is heated. This causes further scattering, which raises the sum of the resistance. Thermometers typically calculate temperature by measuring the difference of electrical resistance in a piece of wire. Thermal ExpansionWhen heated, steel expands. Temperature causes an increase in length, surface area, and thickness. Thermal expansion is the technical name for this. The degree of thermal expansion varies depending on the steel. Thermal expansion happens as a result of heat increasing the motions of the steel’s atoms. When building steellic structures, it is critical to account for thermal expansion. A simple example is the construction of household pipes, which must allow for expansion and contraction as the seasons shift. Heat Treatment on steelsHeat treatment is a method of altering the characteristics of steel in order to make it more suitable for its desired applications. The following are the most common methods of heat treatment:AnnealingNormalisingHardeningTemperingAnnealingMaterials such as iron, steel, copper, brass, and silver are commonly softened by annealing. The procedure entails heating the material to a certain degree and then allow to cool slowly and steadily. Annealing changes the steel’s physical and chemical characteristics to make it more ductile and less rigid. This makes for easier carving, stamping, and formation methods, as well as easier cutting of the steel. Electrical conductivity is also improved by annealing. NormalizingNormalizing also known as normalization is a process used to achieve uniformity of grain size and composition in alloys. The steel is heated to a certain degree before being cool by air. The resulting steel is free of impurities and has increased strength and hardness. Normalizing is often used to manufacture harder and tougher steel, but it is less ductile than annealing. Since the procedure improves this attribute, the normalizing process is typically done on products that may be exposed to machining. HardeningSteel and other alloys are hardened to enhance their mechanical property. During hardening, the steel is heated to a high temperature and kept there until a proportion of the carbon has been melted. The steel is then put out, which means it is quickly cooled in oil or water. Hardening results in an alloy with high strength and wear-resistant. Hardening, on the other hand, makes it more brittle and is thus unsuitable for industrial application. Surface hardening is used where the surface of a part has to be hard enough to prevent wear and degradation while preserving ductility and resilience to withstand impact and shock loading. TemperingTempering is used to increase the ductility of steel. Untempered steel is very strong, but it is too porous for the majority of practical applications. Tempering is a low-temperature heat treatment technique used to achieve a desired hardness/toughness ratio after hardening (neutral hardening, double hardening, ambient carburizing, carbonitriding, or induction hardening). To reduce some of the excess hardness, steel is heated to a lower temperature. After that, the steel is able to cool in still air, resulting in a harder and less brittle material.

Difference between Annealing and Tempering

Difference between Annealing and Tempering The difference between annealing and tempering is determined by how it is treated. Tempering the steel entails heating it to a certain heat below a certain threshold and then cooling it at a very slow and regulated rate, while annealing involves heating the steel to a given temperature and then cooling it at a very slow and controlled rate, and is often performed in air, vacuum, or inert atmospheres. What is Heat Treatment on steels?Heat treatments are used to modify the Mechanical-Property, Physical-Property of the steel steels without altering their appearance. They are critical processes in steel production that improve the favorable properties of steel while allowing for more processing.The heat and temperature of steel are closely regulated in various heat treatment processes. For instance, steel is a steel that mostly goes under heat treatment for various commercial uses.Common objectives of heat treatment are to:Increase strengthImprove elasticityImprove machiningIncrease hardnessImprove formabilityIncrease ductilityImprove toughnessThe cooling stage has varying results depending on the steel and phase. Steel hardens as it is easily cooled, while aluminum softens during the fast cooling stage of solution annealing. There are various methods through which steels are given heat treatment, but Annealing and Tempering are commonly used methods. What Is Annealing?Annealing is the process in which the steel is heated at a certain degree and then cooled slowly at a regulated pace.Annealing is sometimes used to: Prepare steel for cold working by softening it.Increase electrical conductivity.Increase machinabilityFor restoring the steel ductility annealing is done. Cold welding hardens the steel in such a way that, excessive work on it, which may break or crack the steel. Since annealing releases mechanical stresses created during machining or grinding, cold working may take place without the risk of cracking. Annealing is mostly used for steel, but some steels such as copper, aluminum, and brass may be solution annealed. For the annealing process of steel, huge ovens or heaters are used. There must be enough space in the ovens so that it allows proper air to flow through the steel. Gas fire conveyor-furnace are utilized for huge steels parts, and Cars bottoms furnace is used for the small parts of steels. The steel is heated to a certain temperature during the annealing process, where recrystallization can occur. Any imperfection found due to distortion is fixed at this level. The steel is been allowed to set to a certain degree and been cooled at room temperatures. To achieve a refined microstructure and thus maximize softness, the cooling process must be carried out very slowly. This is often accomplished by immersing the hot steel in sand, ashes, or other low heat conductivity materials, or by turning off the oven and allowing the steel to cool with the furnace. What is tempering?Tempering is a technique applicable to improve the hardness of alloys having alloys, especially steel. While steel which is not tempered is extremely stiff, it is too fragile for most applications. Tempering is widely used to reduce excess stiffness after hardening.Tempering is used to modify: FortitudeThe degree of difficultyStability of the structureDuctility is a term that refers to the ability to tenacity. Tempering is the process of heating a steel to a specific temperature less than the critical points, which is mostly found in air, vacuum, or inert atmospheres. The temperature is changed based on how much hardness has to be minimized. Although it varies depending on the steel, in general, low temperatures decrease brittleness while retaining the majority of the hardness, while higher temperatures reduce hardness, increasing elasticity and plasticity while causing some yield and tensile strength to be lost. It is necessary to keep on heating steadily which does not crack steel or other steels. The steel is held to a certain degree for a fixed time. The interior pressure within the steels is been relaxed at the time. Then the steel soon cools in the air or in room temperature.